Phytogeography and syntaxonomy of Scotch Pine woods in the eastern Lombardy Pre-Alps. In the present paper the distribution, ecology and syntaxonomy of pinewoods were studied.
The pinewoods of Pinus sylvestris are located in the area between Garda Lake and Iseo Lake, along the eastern Pre-Alps (Benacensi and Bresciane Pre-Alps).
In this area the Pinewoods have Pinus sylvestris as the most important tree. Some deciduous trees, as Ostrya carpinifolia and Fraxinus ornus, are often present in the canopy and they are very frequent in the underbrush. The herb cover is high, formed by basiphilous scrubs and herbs. Erica carnea, Sesleria varia and Chamaecytisus purpureus are dominant.
The pinewoods are present on calcareous substrata, strictly connected to dolomite limestone outcrop (Dolomia Principale formation).
The pinewoods with Pinus sylvestris and Ostrya carpinifolia can be included into the Chamaecytiso purpurei-Pinetum sylvestris Minghetti, Pedrotti et Poldini 2003, a prealpine association described for Trentino, with which it is in phytogeographical continuity. This association is collocated between the Erico-Pinion pinewoods of central Alps and the Erico-Fraxinion orni pinewoods of E-southern Pre-Alps (Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae pinetosum sylvestris), with which they share a similar floristic composition.
Along the eastern Lombardy Pre-Alps this association is characterized by mesophilous elements, described as Chamaecytiso purpurei-Pinetum sylvestris caricetosum albae subass. nova. This syntaxon and in general all the pinewoods on basic substrata become rarer towards the western part of Lombardy.