Fitosociologia 43 (1) S1 2006

pag. 3-95: Il paesaggio vegetale dell’Isola d’Elba (Arcipelago Toscano). Studio fitosociologico e cartografico

B. Foggi1, L. Cartei1, L. Pignotti1, M.A. Signorini2, D. Viciani1, L. Dell’Olmo1 & E. Menicagli1

1Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Laboratorio di Fitogeografia, Università di Firenze, via La Pira, 4, I-50121 Firenze; e-mail:
2Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Laboratorio di Botanica Forestale ed Ambientale, Università di Firenze, via La Pira, 4, I-50121 Firenze

The plant landscape of the Elba Island (Tuscan Archipelago). Phytosociological and carthographic study. The results of a vegetation survey carried out on Elba Island (Tuscan Archipelago) according to the main three levels of integration for plant communities – phytosociological, synphytosociological and geosynphytosociological survey – are here presented. Vegetation has been described by over 400 phytosociological relevés, distributed on the whole territory of the island, which allowed 64 vegetation types to be singled out at various syntaxonomical levels. During the survey, 11 new associations and 9 new subassociations have been recognised and described: Robertio taraxacoidis-Centaureetum ilvensis, Centaureo aetaliae-Linarietum caprariae, Anogrammo leptophyllae-Cheilanthetum tinaei, Meliloto elegantis-Triticetum ovati, Foeniculo piperiti-Phagnaletum saxatilis phagnaletosum saxatilis and dianthetosum godroniani; Galactito elegantis-Brachypodietum retusi, Cisto monspeliensis-Rosmarinetum officinalis rosmarinetosum officinalis and globularietosum alypii, Lavandulo stoechadis-Cistetum monspeliensis genistetosum desoleanae, Euphorbio spinosae-Cistetum monspeliensis cistetosum monspeliensis and calicotometosum spinosae, Helichryso italici-Genistetum desoleanae ericetosum arboreae, Pistacio lentisci-Calicotometum villosae cistetosum monspeliensis, Anthyllido barbae-jovis-Juniperetum turbinatae, Galio scabri-Quercetum ilicis castanetosum sativae, Cyclamino repandi-Quercetum ilicis quercetosum suberis, Polysticho setiferi-Ostryetum carpinifoliae and Carici microcarpae-Alnetum glutinosae. The new alliance Linarion caprariae is described, which includes chasmophytic silicicolous associations of the Tuscan Archipelago. Study of spatial distribution of vegetation types recognised on a physiognomical and phytosociological basis has permitted to distinguish typologies at a scale of 1:25000 and to build up the island vegetation map, comprising units of natural and seminatural vegetation, as well as land-use units. The vegetation map comprises a total of 71 typologies. The smallest mapped area has been of 2000 m2 as a general rule, but for very homogeneous and well defined units as to the surrounding vegetation, representation of 500-600 m2 units has been possible.
The spatial distribution of vegetation types, completed with information from environmental abiotic parameters (geology, climate, geomorphology) has allowed vegetation units to be singled out at levels of integration higher than phytosociological one. Then, an attempt has been made to reconstruct serial and chain links, following phytosociological method.
Finally, the presence of habitats deserving conservation according to Habitats Directive 92/43 and following revisions, and in conformity with L.R. 56/2000 and following revisions, is pointed out. For some habitats, the main conservation problems are indicated and some management proposals are put forward.