Fitosociologia 39 (1) S2 2002

pag. 5-27: La classe Parietarietea judaicae Oberd. 1977 in Italia

S. Brullo & R. Guarino
Dipartimento di Botanica, Università degli Studi di Catania, via A.Longo 19, I- 95125 Catania

The class Parietarietea judaicae Oberd. 1977 in Italy. On the basis of literature and unpublished data, a synthesis on the synanthropic chasmophilous perennial vegetation occurring in the Italian territories has been carried out. These plant communities are linked to masonry walls and rocky faces heavily disturbed by man, and are dominated by hemicryptophytes, chamaephytes and bryophytes. From the syntaxonomical point of view, in accordance with the majority of the authors who studied the matter, the wall vegetation should be ascribed to a well-distinguished class, Parietarietea judaicae Oberd. 1977, rather than to the Asplenierea trichomanis class, as proposed by other authors. Within the class, one order, Tortulo-Cymbalarietalia Segal 1969, and two alliances are represented in Italy: Parietarion judaicae Segal 1969 and Cymbalario-Asplenion Segal 1969. The first alliance, chiefly linked lo the Mediterranean bioclimate, is mostly characterized by thermophilous chamaephytes, while cryptogams are nearly absent; the second one, distributed in the territories having a temperate bioclimate, is differentiated by an high abundance of small feriis and mosses. For each syntaxon the nomenclatural type and synonims are reported, as well as the indication of the main ecological, floristic and chorological characteristics.
Besides, some unpublished relevés from NE-Sicily, Tuscany (Volterra) and Garda lake are presented, and a new association, Asplenio trichomanis-Umbilicetum horizontalis, is described.

pag. 29-56: La classe Rhamno-Prunetea in Friuli Venezia Giulia e territori limitrofi

L. Poldini1, M. Vidali1 & K. Zanatta
1 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Trieste, via L. Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste; e-mail:,

The class Rhamno-Prunetea in Friuli Venezia Giulia and neighbouring areas. Pre-mantels and mantels of north-eastern Adriatic region are described. They grow from the lower mesotemperate horizon, inside the belt of termophilous vegetation of Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae Klika l933 corr. Moravec in Béguin et Theurillat 1984, to the lower supratemperate horizon, in contact with termophilous beach forests. The phytosociological analysis let to the individuation of 10 coenoses which are referable to the following alliances: Cytision sessilifolii Biondi 1988, Berberidion vulgaris Br.-Bl. 1950 (Berberidenion Géhu, Foucault et Delelis-Dusollier 1983. Fraxino orni-Berberidenion Poldini et Vidali 1995), Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii O. Bolòs 1954 (with the unique suballiance Pruno-Rubenion ulmifòlii). Six of the considered coenoses are new.

pag. 57-63: Alcune associazioni di mantello dell’Appennino ligure

I. Vagge
Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Università degli studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, I-20133 Milano; e-mail:

Some shrubland associations of Ligurian Apennine. Some shrubland associations of Ligurian Apennine are presented: Cytiso sessilifolii-Coriarietum myrtifoliae association with new ericetosum arboreae sub-association, new Spartio juncei-Ericetum arboreae association and Calluno-Sarothamnetum scoparii association with new ericetosum arboreae sub-association.

pag. 65-73: Inquadramento fitosociologico della vegetazione arbustiva di un settore dell’Appennino settentrionale

E. Biondi & S. Casavecchia
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Ancona, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60131
Ancona; e-mail:

Phytosociological attribution of the shrubby vegetation of a Northern Apennines sector. A study on shrubby vegetation, constituted by vegetation mantles and shrub formations, developing in the Regional Natural Park of the Sasso Simone and Simoncello territory, situated in the Northern Apennines, in the low-montane bioclimatic belt, is presented. Three associations, belonging to the two alliances Cytision sessilifoliae and Berberidion vulgaris are ideniified. To the first alliance belongs the Spartio juncei-Cytisetum sessilifolii association diffused, with different variants, on the calcareous formations, while to the second one belong the new Roso arvensis-Prunetum spinosae and Lonicero xylostei-Salicetum apenninae associations, of clay formations.

pag. 75-80: La vegetazione arbustiva di un settore costiero dell’Adriatico centrale italiano

E. Biondi, S. Bagella, S. Casavecchia & M. Pinzi
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie e Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Ancona, via Brecce Bianche I-60131

The shrubby vegetation in a coastal sector of Italian central Adriatic sea. The results of the phytosociological analysis concerning the shrubby vegetation of a sector of the Italian Adriatic coast, of around 20 Kms, sitiiated in the Regional Natural Park of Conero, are presented. It deals with mountainous coasts of two main lithomorphological typologies: marly-arenaceous and calcareous formations. On the first formation, in correspondence to marly rocks, the new Lonicero etruscae-Cornetum sanguineae association, belonging to the edapho-hygrophilous meso and submediterranean pre-apennine series of the elm (Symphyto bulbosi-Ulmeto minoris sigmetum), develops. On the contrary, on sand stones, constituted by superimposed levels and intercalated to marlstones, develops a xerophilous vegetation which stops at the maquis stadium, referred to the new Coronillo emeroidis-Rhamnetum alaterni association in the new loniceretosum etruscae sub-association. On the calcareous cliffs of the warmest slopes, a maquis vegetation develops, referred to the same association but in the most thermophilous subassociation viburnetosum tini, colonising partially consolidated screes, which represents an element of the mesomediterranean italian-tyrrhenian and amphiadriatic calcicolous series of the holm-oak (Fraxino orni -Querceto ilicis sigmetum). Finally, on the steep slopes of the compact limestones of the warmest sectors of the South-East side of M. Conero (Valley of the Vellare), the new ampelodesmetosum mauritanici sub-association of the Coronillo emeroidis-Euphorbietum dendroidis association is described. It differentiates from the latter for the presence of more temperate elements and for the loss of some thermomediterranean species.

pag. 81-95: Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Paliurus spina-christi Miller scrubs in the intermontane areas of the Abruzzo region (Central Apennine, Central Italy)

G. Pirone1 & M. Cutini2

1 Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Università degli Studi, Loc. Coppito, Via Vetoio, I-67100 L’Aquila;

2 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università Roma Tre, Viale G. Marconi 446, I-00146 Roma; e-mail:

Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Paliurus spina-christi Miller scrubs in the intermontane areas of the Abruzzo region (Central Apennine, Central Italy). The present paper focuses on a phytosociological, chorological and syndynamical analysis of the Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus communities, widespread in the mountain basin of the calcareous central Apennine. Various other species are physiognomically relevant in those coenoses like Rhamnus saxatilis subsp. infectoria, Chamaecytisus spinescens, Osyris alba, Buxus sempervirens, Daphne sericea, and Paliurus spina-christi. These communities are included in a vegetation mosaic with grazed areas and garrigues (Cisto-Micromerietea Oberd. 1954), showing dynamical connections with forest coenoses dominated by Quercus pubescens (Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis Horvat (1958 n.n.) 1959 and Quercion pubescenti-petraeae Br.BI. 1932 em. Riv.Mart.1972).
Within the Cytision sessilifolii Biondi in Biondi, Allegrezza, Guitian 1988, an endemic syntaxon who defined an apenninic scrub communities, two coenoses are found: the new association Chamaecytiso spinescentis-Juniperetum oxycedri with two subassociations, and Rhamno saxatilis-Paliuretum spinae-christi Biondi 1999.
The coenological and chorological features (high percentage of Mediterranean (Steno- and Euri-) and Eastern species) of the red juniper scub in the apenninic area, need a new synsystematic assessment, as they suggest strong similarities with analogues described in Eastern Europe.

pag. 97-120: Contributo alla definizione sintassonomica e sindinamica dei mantelli di vegetazione della fascia collinare-submontana dell’Appennino centrale (Italia centrale)

M. Cutini1 & C. Blasi2
1Dipartimento di Biologia, Università Roma Tre, Viale G. Marconi 446, I-00146 Roma; e-mail:
2Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Università La Sapienza, P.le A.Moro 4, I-00185 Roma; e-mail:

Contribution to the syntaxonomical and syndinamical assessment of the mantle communities in the hilly-submontain belt in the central Apennine (central Italy). The aim of this paper is a phytosociological study of the mantle communities occurring in the hilly-submontain belt in the Central Apennine (central Italy). This vegetation types are included within the alliance Cytision sessilifolii Biondi in Biondi, Allegrezza, Guitian 1988 (endemic for the Italian peninsula). It was first established in the Adriatic side of central Apennine, ranking Cytisophyllum sessilifolium and Spartium junceum communities, dynamically related to the Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Ostrya carpinifolia, Carpinus orientalis and Fraxinus ornus woods.
The syntaxa are usually characterized by a significant percentage of Eurimediterranean and Eastern species, showing a good authonomy compared to Central European communities.
Compared to other Central Apennine srubby vegetation described in the phytosociological literature, it is possible to emphasize a good coenological autonomy, that stresses the need for Prunetalia spinosae Tüxen 1952 syntaxonomical review, for interpretation of the South and East European scrub. Several communities grow up within the Apennine area. The new hilly tirrenic belt association Chamaecytiso spinescentis-Cytisophylletum sessilifolii, dinamically linked to thermophylous woods (Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis Horvat (1958 n.n.) 1959), a new subassociation characterized by Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus belonging to Spartio-Cytisetum sessilifolii Biondi, Allegrezza, Guitian, 1988, and fragments of communities belonging to Berberidion vulgaris Br.Bl. 1950 alliance, are presented.

pag. 121-128: Su alcuni aspetti di vegetazione arbustiva mesoigrofila della Sardegna nord-occidentale

E. Biondi1, E. Farris2 & R. Filigheddu2
1Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona; email:
biondi@popcsi.unian. it
2Dipartimento di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Università degli Studi, Via Muroni 25, I-07100 Sassari; e-mail:;

The results on the phytosociologic analysis on some shrub caducous meso-higrophylous communities are here presented. The study involves the north-western part of Sardinia (Italy), with major attention to the carbonatic and volcanic sectors of ‘Sassarese’ and ‘Nurra’. The new associations Vinco sardoae-Rubetum ulmifolii, Crataego monogynae-Pyretum amygdaliformis and Rhamno alaterni-Spartietum juncei are here described. The first two are included in the Rhamno-Prunetea class, Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii alliance, the last is referred to Quercetea ilicis class, Pistacio-Rhamnetalia alaterni order.

pag. 129-143: Contributo alla conoscenza della sub-alleanza Pruno-Rubenion ulmifolii in Italia

C. Blasi1, M. Cutini2, R. Di Pietro1 & P. Fortini3
1Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Università “LA Sapienza” di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma; e-mail: carlo.blasi@
2Dipartimento di Biologia, Università Roma Tre, Viale G. Marconi 446, I-00146 Roma; e-mail:
3Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l’Ambiente e il Territorio, Facoltà di SS.MM.FFNN., Università del Molise,
via Mazzini 8, I-86100 Isernia; e-mail:

Contribution to the knowledge of the Pruno-Rubenion ulmifolii sub-alliance in Italy. On the basis of both published and unpublished data, an
overview regarding the sub-alliance Pruno-Rubenion in central Italy is presented in this paper. The unpublished data regards two important
phytosociological associations occurring in the coastal, sub-coastal and sub-apennine areas of the tyrrhenian side of central Italy such as Roso-Rubetum ulmifolii and Lonicero-Rosetum sempervirentis. The Pruno-Rubenion community types seems to be mainly widespread within the thermo and meso-mediterranean bioclimate, while from a syndynamical point of view, these belong to Quercetalia ilicis and termophilous Quercetalia pubescenti petraeae woodlands seral context. In some cases, also, Pruno-Rubenion communities may occur in humid extra-zonal areas enclosed in a bioclimatic context tending to Pistacio-Rhamnetalia potential vegetation. Although, at present, Pruno-Rubenion sub-alliance has never been used in syntaxonomical schemes regarding Prunetalia spinosae vegetation in Italy, actually it is well suited to include several Pruno-Rubion community types described in this territory. Thus, it is possible to hypotize, which in addition to eastern Spain and southern France, the Pruno-Rubenion distribution area could also include large areas of the Iitalian Peninsula, in particular of the tyrrhenian district. A synoptic table composed of the main Pruno-Rubenion associations described in southern Europe seems to confirm this hypothesis.

pag. 145-162: La classe Rhamno-Prunetea in Italia

L. Poldini1, M. Vidali1, E. Biondi2 & C. Blasi3

1Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Trieste, via L. Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste; e-mail:,
2Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università di Ancona, via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona; email:
biondi@popcsi.unian. it
3Dipartimento di Biologia vegetale, Università “La Sapienza”, p.le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma; e-mail:

The class Rhamno-Prunetea in Italy. This paper deals with scrubs and thickets (pre-mantels, mantels and hedgerows) which are distributed mainly in Central and North-eastern Italy, from the meso-mediterranean belt of the Mediterranean region to the supra-mediterranean variant of the Temperate region. The presence of several stenomediterranean species and of a group of south-eastern species differentiates these coenoses from those of Central Europe. In Italy the Prunetalia spinosae Tuxen 1952 order is represented by the following alliances and sub-alliances: Cytision sessilifolii Biondi 1988, Berberidion vulgaris Br.-B1. 1950 (Berberidenion Géhu, Foucault et Delelis-Dusollier 1983 and Fraxino orni-Berberidenion Poldini et Vidali 1995), Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii O. Bolòs 1954 (with the unique suballiance Rubenion ulmifolii) and Salici-Viburnion opuli (Passarge 1985) De Foucault 1992.

pag. 163-173: Il modello architettonico di Spartium junceum L.

V. Ballerini1, D. Neri2, F. Zucconi2 & E. Biondi1
1Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Ancona, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60132
Ancona; e-mail:biondi@popcsi.unian. it
2Dipartimento di Energetica, Università degli Studi di Ancona, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60132 Ancona; e-mail:

The architectural model of Spartium junceum L. The architectural model of Spartium junceum L. was studied stressing its diversity in plants of different physiological age. The first part of the study describes the phyllotaxis and the different types of shoots that are produced by the broom plants. The second part discusses the bud growth (vegetative or reproductive) in relation to the type of shoot and to the position along the axis, and finally the bud break organization. In the third part, the elongation rate and the total growth of the shoots are related to the architectural model, the physiological age, and the adaptive value. The leaves are opposite in all types of shoots or plant ages, being distances between leaves in a pair much smaller than that between pairs. Each successive pair of opposite leaves is arranged at a right angle to the previous pair. The distance between pairs of leaves is higher in the middle part of the shoot, so as inside the pair. Young individuals elongate more the primary shoots, producing a higher amount of sylleptic shoots, than older plants, while the latter have a higher percentage of bud break. Too many shoots in expanding young plants, each of which would be singly disadvantaged, could lead to a dilution of resources. Such a behavior can give to young broom plants architecture an adaptive value to compete with herbs in the early stages of the colonization of abandoned fields. Under these conditions, broom plants assume a soaring shape with an ovoid canopy. On the contrary, in senescent or adult individuals the proliferation of short shoots is favored in comparison with sylleptic growth and shoot elongation (low and uniform). Therefore, during the maturity the plant tends to assume an expanded shape with an external crown of short reproductive branches and an internal cavity whose dimensions increase with years.

pag. 175-183: Dinamica di popolazioni arbustive e preforestali nell’appennino umbro-marchigiano (Italia centrale)

V. Ballerini & E. Biondi
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Ancona via Brecce Bianche, I-60132
Ancona; e-mail:

Population dynamic of shrubby and pre-forestal formations in the umbro-marchiginno Apennines (central Italy). The aim of this research was to study some aspects of the dynamics of those populations that are the most active and dominant in the grassland-wood transition stages in the Central Apennines. The study concerned Spartium junceum and Fraxinus ornus populations and was carried out in permanent plots. These populations characterise the grassland-wood transition through the shrub and pre-wood stages.
It was established that S. junceum populations reach their maximum expansion in 20 years. Afterwards, the competition among individuals becomes very intense provoking a decrease in the actual number of individuals that, as a result, tend to develop a uniform spatial distribution. This stage, which can be defined as the stage of steadiness, can last for long since the population remains steady. This situation starts to change when the S. junceum population is reached by pre-forest species such as F. ornus. This species is able to settle even under the thick cover formed by S. junceum during the stage of steadiness. Probably, this cover gives rise to microclimatic conditions suitable for F. ornus. In fact, the excessive cover occurring in the stages preceding the stage of steadiness does not allow the settlement of F. ornus. On the contrary, this species is able to settle in those plots where the intense intraspecific competition provoked a decrease in the population density of S. junceum. Afterwards, F. ornus tends to develop faster than S. junceum gaining the dominant position.