Fitosociologia 39 (1) 2002

pag. 3-13: Evoluzione della flora e della vegetazione infestante le principali colture agrarie in Italia

G. Covarelli

Dipartimento di Scienze Agroambientali e della Produzione Vegetale, Sezione di Agronomia e Coltivazioni erbacee, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia

Evolution of weed flora and vegetation of the most important crops in Italy. Weed communities, which are normally found in the crops, are dynamic entities in rapid evolution, regarding to the adopted agronomic technique. The influence of the new agronomic techniques on weed flora evolution, both on winter-spring and summer crops, have been examined. In particular the influence of chemical weed control, crop rotation, new sowing techniques, nitrogen fertilisation, the choice of varieties and the management of abandoned lands have been considered. As consequence the original weeds communities are changed and it is becoming much more difficult to fit them into the traditional phytosociological schemes.

pag. 15-21: The Mediterranean Island of Alborán: a review of its flora and vegetation

J. F. Mota, A. J. Sola, A. Aguilera, M. I. Cerrillo & E. D. Dana

Dpto. Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Universidad de Almería, E-04120, Almería; e-mail:

The island of Alborán lies in the middle of the Alborán Sea (Mediterranean Sea, South Spain) and is characterised by high mean temperatures and scarce precipitation. Its botanical importance led the authors yo analyse the floristic changes occurred through the XIX and XX centuries as related to the increased human pressure on the Isle, as well as to elucidate the significant environmental variables causing the observed vegetation patterns by analysing published relevès. It can be concluded that the flora of this island has been dramatically affected by temporary or permanent human presence: some species have come into extinction while others have been progressively introduced into the island as newcomers -in our visits to the island five neophytes have been recorded-. Despite the low species richness of the area, historically the island has harboured four endemic taxa: Anacyclus alboranensis, Senecio alboranicus, Frankenia corymbosa subsp. alboranensis and Diplotaxis siettiana, although the latter species is practically extinct in the wild nowadays. Man-disturbance and, to a lesser extent, edaphic salts content are probably the environmental parameters influencing the most the species distribution and floristic composition of the island plant communities. Consequently, disappearance of some particular
habitats -e.g. unsteady sandy soils- and creation and over-representation of new man-made habitats are highlighted as the main factor responsible for the floristic variations accounted in the Isle of Alborán throughout the last two centuries.

pag. 23-43: Syndynamics of lowland Quercus frainetto & Q. cerris forests in Lazio (central Italy)

C. Blasi1, A. Stanisci2, L. Filesi3, A. Milanese1, E. Perinelli1 & L. Riggio1

1Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Università di Roma “La Sapienza “, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma; e-mail:
2Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie dell’Ambiente e del Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Via Mazzini 8, I-86170 Isernia
3Dipartimento di Pianificazione, Istituto Universitario di Architettura di Venezia, Cà Tron, Santa Croce 1957, 30135 Venezia

Syntaxonomy and syndynamics of residual natural vegetation of Lazio lowland have been analysed using 120 original phytosociological relevés.
Data matrix were subjected to classification and ordination techniques.
The mesophytic forest of the lowland can be included in the Mespilo germanicae-Quercetum frainetto association, Teucrio siculi-Quercion cerridis alliance. Three subassociations have been recognized: arbutetosum unedonis subass.nova, cornetosum sanguineae subass. nova and subass. quercetosum roboris. Main serial contacts are described: mantles are referred to the new association Daphno gnidii-Cytisetum scopariae (Pruno-Rubenion ulmifolii), shrublands to the new association Phillyreo latifoliae-Ericetum scopariae (Ericion arboreae), grassland to the Moenchio-Tuberarietum guttatae (Helianthemion guttatae), and a small community of ephemeral ponds to the new association Sileno laetae-lsolepetum cernuae (Cicendio-Solenopsion laurentiae).
Catenal contacts were also analysed and discussed.

pag. 45-70: La vegetazione dei “guazzi” e il paesaggio vegetale della pianura alluvionale del tratto terminale del Fiume Musone (Italia centrale)

E. Biondi, S. Casavecchia & Z. Radetic

Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università di Ancona, via Brecce bianche, I-60131 Ancona; e-mail:

The “guazzi” vegetation and the plant landscape of the alluvial plane of the last stretch of the Musone River (Central Italy). The phytosociological study of the “guazzi” vegetation and the plant landscape of the last stretch of the Musone River alluvial plane is here presented. The “guazzi” are little artificial wet areas, made and kept for hunting reasons. The structural and managerial characteristics, as well as the environmental conditions of these formations, are described. The floristic research allowed to register 165 entities divided into 49 families and 116 genera. They are generally common species of anthropic and ruderal areas while some of them have a certain interest for the regional flora. These species are mainly found within the “guazzi” which therefore contribute considerably in the increase of biodiversity of the examined territory. The phytosociological study allowed the identification of several syntaxa, mainly connected to “guazzi”, some of which are described for the first time: Crypsido schoenoidis-Juncetum bufonii ass. nova; Loto tenuis-Paspaletum paspaloidis ass. nova; Trifolio fragiferi-Ranunculetum ophioglossifolii ass. nova; Eleocharitetum palustris Schennik 1919 paspaletosum paspaloidis subass. nova; Bolboschoenetum maritimi Eggler 1933 lotetosum tenuis subass. nova, Senecio erucifolii-Inuletum viscosae Biondi & Allegrezza 1996 lotetosum tenuis subass. nova.
Through these researches it was also possible to identify the vegetational potentiality of the area and to reconstruct the vegetation series which is represented by the Lauro nobilis-Fraxineto oxycarpae sygmetum, here presented in its main members.
In the closing considerations the role of “guazzi” as ecosystems of wet areas owing a great interest for the flora, the vegetation and the fauna of the examined territory, is underlined. For this reason they are to be considered as knots of a system of biologica1 relationships, in accordance with the conceptions of the ecological corridors, together with the diffused elements present in the rural landscape (such as isolated or lined up trees, little woods, hedges, and so on). From these observations rises the opportunity to realize similar structures even within protected areas, such as parks and natura1 reserves. This will allow the partial re-naturalization of the territory. In fact, through historical documents of the area, it is known that similar wet habitats were naturally present before the realization of drainage works which had interested a great part of the sublittoral of the Adriatic side of
the Italian peninsula.

pag. 71-80: Alcune considerazioni sui rapporti fra Fitosociologia e Pedologia

C. Bini1, G. Buffa1, U. Gamper1, G. Sburlino1 & V. Zuccarello2

1Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Campo Celestia, 2737b-30122, I-30123 Venezia; e-mail:
2Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie biologiche e ambientali, Strada Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce; email:

Some observations on relationship between Phytosociology and Geopedology. Many are the questions about the relationships between soil and vegetation which geobotanists and pedologists try to answer to, i.e. which is the extent of the correlation between the two systems and what pedological variables are the most meaningful to help us to describe the vegetation types? Starting from concrete data based on Soil Taxonomy, and on the Braun-Blanquet approach, as far as vegetation is concerned, this paper proposes some observations on the interrelation soil-vegetation and tries to establish the significance of some edaphic parameters towards plant communities.

pag. 81-108: Flora e vegetazione dei laghi costieri La Vota (Calabria centro-occidentale)

G. Maiorca1, G. Spampinato2 & A. Caprio3

1ARSSA – Agenzia Regionale per lo Sviluppo e per i Servizi in Agricoltura, Viale Trieste 93, I-87100 Cosenza; e-mail:
2Dipartimento S.T.A.F.A., Universirtà di Reggio Calabria, Piazza S. Francesco, I-89061 Gallina (RC); e-mail:
3Via Busento 9, I-87036 Roges di Rende (CS); e-mail:

Flora and veqetation of the La Vota coastal lakes (C-W Calabria). The La Vota ponds, from Tyrrhenian shoreline of Calabria (Italy), are a very interesting biotope
for the occurrence of rare species and phytocoenosis. They are menaced by strong human pressure: tourists, farming and water pollution. To propose the preservation
for this area as a whole, data about the flora were produced with a special emphasis on their peculiarities. Furthermore, the vegeration has been analysed from
shore-line to retro-dunes and around the ponds, showing the distlibution of associations, dynamic and catenal relations between different kinds of coenoses. Ipomoea
sagittata, a critically endangered species in Italy, was found with several more, worthy of protection according to I.U.C.N. status. Therefore, steps should be
taken to preserve this area.

pag. 109-113: Inquadramento fitosociologico dei popolamenti a Celtis tournefortii Lam. di Caltabellotta (Sicilia sud-occidentale)

C. Marcenò, D. Ottonello & S. Romano

Dipartimento di Scienze Botaniche dell’Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 38, I-90123 Palermo; e-mail:

Phytosociology of Celtis tournefortii Lam. (Ulmaceae) population in the Caltabellotta area (SW Sicily). A new syntaxon, Oleo-Euphorbietum dendroidis Trinajstic (1973) 1984 subass. celtidetosum tournefortii is proposed on the basis of ecological and phytosociological observations and bibliographic data. The new subassociation characterizes the populations of Celtis tournefortii Lam. recently recorded from Caltabellotta (Agrigento district, Sicily).

pag. 115-125: La vegetazione forestale del “Bosco di Oricola”, un querco-carpineto nell’Appennino laziale-abruzzese

C. Blasi, G. Filibeck & L. Rosati

Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Università La Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma; e-mail:

The vegetation of the “Bosco di Oricola”, a Quercus robur-Carpinus betulus woodland in Central Apennines (Abruzzo – Italy). In this paper a phytosociological analysis of the vegetation of the “Bosco di Oricola” (Western Abruzzo) is presented. The biotope covers 400 hectares, between 570 and 640 m a.s.l., on clayey-sandy lacustrine deposits. The forest is well preserved and is made mainly of Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus and Tilia cordata.
The new association Arisaro proboscidei-Quercetum roboris is described, along with the subassociations typicum, quercetosum petraeae and viburnetosum opuli. Salix cinerea communities, belonging to the alliance Salicion cinereae, are also found on marshy soils.
In Central Italy, most woodlands dominated by Carpinus betulus usually lack characteristic species of the Carpinion betuli, and therefore usually belong to the Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae or – in cooler habitats – to the Geranio striati-Fagion. The association here described, instead, clearly belongs to the Carpinion betuli, and is therefore the best preserved relic of this alliance in Central Italy. It probably represents also the southernmost stand of the alliance in Italy.

pag. 127-134: Contributo alla conoscenza delle praterie su substrati ultramafici dell’Alta Valtiberina (Toscana orientale, Italia)

D. Viciani1, B. Foggi1, A . Gabellini2 & D. Rocchini3

1Museo di Storia Naturale dell’Università di Firenze, sez. Orto Botanico via P.A. Micheli 3, I-50121 Firenze; e-rnail:;
2DREAM Italia S.C.r.I. – via dei Guazzi 13, Poppi, Arezzo
3Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Università di Siena, via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena

Contribution to the knowledge of grasslands on ultramafics substrata of the Upper Tiber Valley (Eastern Tuscany, Italy). T.he Upper Tiber Valley is characterized by a wide diffusion of ultramafic substrata. The flora and vegetation of these substrata have been researched since the middle of the XX century. In recent years, phytosociological studies have allowed us to point out some peculiar vegetation types. In this paper the new association Festuco robustifoliae-Caricetum humilis is described. It consists of grassland phytocoenoses dominated by Carex humilis, Danthonia alpina and Festuca robustifolia, with Stipa etrusca, S. tirsa and Chrysopogon gryllus. Peculiar syntaxonomic, synchorologic and syndynamic aspects are shown.

pag. 135-160: I boschi del piano collinare della Provincia di Terni

E. Biondi1, D. Gigante2, S. Pignattelli2 & R. Venanzoni2

1Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Ancona, via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona; e-mail:
2Dipartimento di Biologia vegetale e Biotecnologie agroambientali, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno, 74, I-06121 Perugia; e-mail:

The woods of the hilly belt of Terni Province. On the grounds of 94 unpublished phytosociological relevés, carried out in the territory of Terni Province, a phytosociological arrangement of Quercus ilex, Ostrya carpinifolia, Quercus pubescens, Quercus cerris, Quercus frainetto dominated woods of hills and plains, is proposed. The territories where these vegetation types grow can be referred to the Mesomediterranean and Sub-Mesomediterranean belts.
The observed associations are: Ciclamino repandi-Quercetum ilicis, Fraxino orni-Quercetum ilicis, Rusco aculeati-Quercetum ilicis ass. nova, Cephalanthero longifoliae-Quercetum ilicis, Scutellario columnae-Ostryetum carpinifoliae, Asparago acutifolii-Ostryetum carpinifoliae, Roso sempervirentis-Quercetum pubescentis, Roso sempervirentis-Quercetum pubescentis subass. quercetosum dalechampii subass. nova, Lonicero xylostei-Quercetum cerridis, Erico arboreae-Quercetum cerridis, Cephalanthero longifoliae-Quercetum cerridis, Malo florentinae-Quercetum frainetto.
Each recognized syntaxonomical unit is presented through a floristic, biogeographic, geologic and bioclimatic characterization, in order both to define the ecology of each phytocoenosis and, in general, to improve the understanding of the biogeographic and bioclimatic complexity that characterizes this transitional territory of centra1 Italy, placed in the middle between the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian slopes of the Italian peninsula.

pag. 161-171: Studio fitosociologico dei boschi a Quercus pubescens s.l. delle Marche e di alcune zone contigue dell’Appennino centro-settentrionale (Italia centrale)

M. Allegrezza1, M. Baldoni1, E. Biondi1, F. Taffetani1 & V. Zuccarello2

1Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Ancona, via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona; e-mail:
2Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Anmbientali, Università degli Studi di Lecce, via Provinc. Lecce-Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce; e-mail:

Phytosociological study of Quercus pubescens s.l. woods of Marche and surrounding areas of the North-Central Apennines (Central Italy). The phytosociological analysis of wood of Quercus pubescens s.l. occurring in the territory of Marche are here presented. The aim of this study was to identify the associations in which these woods participate and the landscape contexts in which they occur. A matrix with 138 phytosociological relevés was constructed. These relevés, both published and unpublished, concerned the territory of Marche and the surroundings areas of the Umbro-Marchigiano and Tosco-Marchigiano Apennines and were previously considered as belonging to the following associations: Peucedano cervariae-Quercetum pubescentis, Cercidi siliquastri-Quercetum pubescentis, Clematido flammulae-Quercetum pubescentis and Roso sempervirentis-Quercetum pubescentis. In the matrix were also inserted relevés made in several sectors of Central Italy to better define the areale of the Roso sempervirentis-Quercetum pubescentis association. These relevés concerned the following subassociations: quercetosum cerridis occurring in the hills of Tuscany; ericetosum multiflorae occurring in some areas of Umbria and carpinetosum orientalis for a sector of southern Latium. The phytosociological analysis of the relevés clustered in the dendrogram and the study of dynamic relationships allowed the attribution of the forest vegetation here considered to three association belonging to the 0stryo-Carpinion orientalis alliance: Peucedano cervariae-Quercetum pubescentis for tlhe aspect relatively most mesophylous, Pistacio terebinthi-Quercetum pubescentis ass. nova for the meso-xerophylous hilly sectors of southern Latium (previously attributed io the carpinetosum orientalis sub-association of the Roso sempervirentis-Quercetum pubescentis association) and, finally, Roso sempervirentis-Quercetum pubescentis for the exclusively xerophytic aspects. The Roso sempervirentis-Quercetum pubescentis association includes the following xerophytic associations: Cercidi siliquastri-Quercetum pubescentis p.p. described for the Pesaro province and Clematido flammulae-Quercetum pubescentis for the hills of Romagna. The group of relevés of the hilly sector of Tuscany were attributed to the Lonicero xylostei-Quercetum cerridis association which was described for the sub-coastal sector of Adriatic side and occurring in the region with the loniceretosum etruscae new subassociation.