Fitosociologia 48 (2) S1 2011

pag. 5-12: Conservation studies on threatened endemic plants of the Mediterranean area: a literature overview for Sardinia

*G. Fenu, E. Mattana

Centro Conservazione Biodiversità, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, V.le S. Ignazio da Laconi 13, 09123 Cagliari, Italy

Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, situated in the West Mediterranean basin. Its isolation and high geological diversity have created a wide range of habitats, with high levels of endemism, especially on its mountain massifs. Despite the rich plant biodiversity of the Island and the threats to its endemic flora, few biological conservation studies have been conducted on Sardinian endemic plants.
A literature analysis highlighted that 19 papers were published, with the 68% of them being focused on threatened species. These data highlight the poor knowledge on the conservation status of the endemic flora of Sardinia. However, the increasing number of papers detected in the last three years represents a good signal that more attention will be devoted to threatened endemic species of the Island in the near future.

pag. 13-20: The genus Romulea in Italy: taxonomy, ecology and intraspecific variation in relation to the flora of Western Mediterranean islands

F. Frignani1 & *G. Iiriti2

1Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Università degli Studi, Via P.A. Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena, I. E-mail:

2Centro Conservazione Biodiversità (CCB), Dipartimento di Scienze e Botaniche, Università degli Studi, Viale S. Ignazio 13, 09123 Cagliari, I. E-mail:

Studies about genus Romulea underlined how this is a critical group of the Italian flora. This genus is characterized by an high level of polymorphism caused mainly by hybridization, polyploidy and peculiar climatic/edaphic conditions. In Italy are currently recognized to be 12 taxa, while 16 in the main west Mediterranean insular systems. Among them, Sardinia has the higher richness with 10 entities, followed by Corsica (8), Sicily (6), Tuscan Archipelago (5), Maltese Archipelago (5) and Balearic islands (3). Nowadays analyses about pollen, stigmas and stomata morphology, karyology and molecular biology are still in progress, in order to product a phylogentic study of this genus in Italy and to attempt solving some taxonomical doubts.

pag. 21-29: Genetic diversity and phylogeographical assessment of Helianthemum caput-felis Boiss. (Cistaceae) based on AFLP markers

J. C. Agulló, *A. Juan, A. Guilló, Mª Á. Alonso & M. B. Crespo

Analyses of AFLP markers were carried out for three populations of Helianthemum caput-felis. The selected populations corresponded to well-fragmented areas from Spanish territories: Iberian Peninsula (Alicante), Balearic Islands (Majorca) and North Africa (Melilla). Analyses of molecular data (PCO, Fst values and Fst dendrograms) revealed a separation between the North African population and the Iberian-Balearic populations. The importance of the geological events within the Mediterranean basin, especially changes of the water level after the Messinian salinity crisis, is discussed. Multivariate analyses yielded close relationships between populations from the Balearic Islands and the Iberian Peninsula, though some uncertain data were detected. Balearic subpopulations with different ecological habitats appeared to be genetically similar. Finally, the obtained genetic data are also relevant for conservation purposes.

pag. 31-39: Habitat transitions and patterns of diversification of the genus Aquilegia in the Mediterranean context

*J. Mª Bastida Alamillo1, R. J. Bueno2, J. M. Alcántara Gámez2 & P. J. Rey Zamora2

1Posdoc Lab. Ecología y evolución de polinización y sistemas reproductivos en plantas. CIEco, UNAM Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro # 8701. Col. Ex-Hacienda de San José de La Huerta. C.P. 58190. Morelia, Michoacán, MÉXICO, e-mail:

2Departamento de Biología Animal, Biología Vegetal y Ecología. Universidad de Jaén, E-23071, Jaén. Spain, e-mail:,,

Genus Aquilegia in North America has become a recurrent example of adaptive radiation driven by pollinator specialization and floral syndromes differentiation. However, Eurasian columbines show similar taxonomic diversity despite to be mainly pollinated by bumblebees. This situation makes Eurasian columbines an ideal counterpoint to explore diversification process under low pollinator diversity but high environmental heterogeneity scenarios. In this paper we explore diversification rates and patterns of habitat (habitat and altitudinal range) transitions underlying the European columbines evolution. A density-dependent lineal model of diversification best fitted our data, which implies a lineal decrease of diversification rate through radiation. Our results point to an important role of habitat (14.3-15.8 habitat transitions) in driving European columbines diversification. Habitat and altitudinal range reconstruction showed a pattern from wide altitudinal range (encompassing 1000-1200 m) and generalist ancestors to narrow altitudinal ranges (≈ 800 m) and open-rocky habitats in more recent taxa (i.e. those species inhabiting mountains regions of South Europe). Ecological opportunity has been the preferred explanation for density-dependence diversification during a radiation. Glacial impacts on European flora and the coincidence of the initiation of the radiation with the onset of Mediterranean climate probably did generate ecological opportunities for niche expansion and habitat specialization and evolution. However, we suggest that some biological features of Aquilegia (low seed dispersal, small population sizes and frequent inbreeding depression) unrelated to ecological opportunity together with the orography might also be involved in density-dependent speciation and habitat evolution in this genus. Specifically, we propose that high geographical isolation between and within distinct South European peninsulas, restricted geographical range size and specialization on open-rocky habitats combined with low seed dispersal might have contributed to the density-dependence mode of diversification in European columbines.

pag. 41-46: Phenological traits of vegetation: examples of some phytocoenoses from selected vegetation-series

G. Puppi

Dip. BES. Univ. Bologna,via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna,

The rhythms of growth, flowering and fruiting of plant communities (symphenological patterns) are conditioned by synchronizing and asynchronizing factors. Phenological behaviours of species can be categorized into types and their synchrony or asynchrony (diversity) can be evaluated by numerical methods. Moreover, the phenological traits of a phytocoenosis can be compared and related with other features and criteria of classification. Each phytocoenosis has a typical symphenological pattern that is subject to variations (anomalies) depending on the weather and also on the stress and disturbance level: pheno-anomalies can lead to variations in the fitness of some species and possibly to the loss of biodiversity.
In fact, the phenological traits enrich the bio-indication value of plants and should always be considered when attaining a global view of plant communities.

pag. 47-54: Vegetation series: a tool for the assessment of grassland ecosystem services in Mediterranean large-scale grazing systems

*S. Bagella, M. C. Caria

Dipartimento di Scienze Botaniche, Ecologiche e Geologiche, Università di Sassari. email:,

Large-scale grazing systems (LSGS) are areas in which land-based livestock farming is the dominant productive activity and where grasslands, mainly of secondary origin, represent the main resource. To assess and make comparable the ecosystem services (ESS) of secondary grasslands, a clear space-time reference is needed. In this context, the concept of vegetation series may support the modeling of the dynamic succession trajectories of vegetation in relation to grazing and land use intensity and the identification of ESS benchmarks (e.g. the potential vegetation). While relating ESS to different dynamical stages within a vegetation series it will be possible to identify which land use types should be more useful to improve the effectiveness of one or more ESS. The paper illustrates 3 case studies in which the vegetation series model supported the assessment of grassland ESS in Mediterranean LSGS.

pag. 55-66: Evaluación de la vegetación en un área del litoral mediterráneo en Alicante (España)

*M. P. Donat1,2 & J. Martínez Fort2

1Ins. Investigación para la Gestión Integrada de Zonas Costeras (IGIC)

2Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia
C/ Paranimf, 1. 46730 Gandia Valencia (Spain). e-mail:;

This study covers the investigation and evaluation of the vegetation coating existing in the coastline from the Saline of Agua Amarga until the Santa Pola Cape (Alicante, Spain) as a part of the plan for the coastline arrangement.
To reach this objective the methodology used has been articulated in two main elements:
– The classification of the vegetation communities following the phytosociological methodology of the Zürich-Montpellier School.
– The use of a SIG in the cartography of the vegetation formations, developing a coating from the photointerpretation of digital orthophoto in which each polygon is assigned with:
– The existing phytosociological associations, up to a maximum of five, are arranged according to their covering and dominance.
– The codes of the Habitats Directive, when any of these associations is considered in it.
– The capacity to represent other communities, their conservation and their potentiality.
– The different legal protection measures, if any (LICs, local protected area, maritime and land public area, Coastal demarcation (DPMT), ZEPAs and other natural protected spaces/nature reserves).
– Global evaluation.
Combining the phytosociological approach and the SIG analysis with the applicable legislation proves to be a good tool or the administration and evaluation of the environment.
We obtain the cartography of 390 units which include a total of 51 associations of coastal communities: halophytic dunes, saltmarshes, saltmeadows, sea cliffs, grasslands, sclerophyllous scrubs and wetland vegetation. The Habitats Directive considers 30 of these associations and 6 within them are designated to be priority. Furthermore 582 plant species are also inventoried, 17 of them are endemic and 3 (belonging to the Limonium genus) have nearly a limited distribution in this area of Alicante.
The final evaluation of the cartographic units obtained may guide the regulation of the activities in this territory, trying to preserve the units with major interest and under higher degree of threat. This approach may lead to the development of a group of measures and actions that allow the regeneration of the units degraded and with good potential in a compatible manner with the rest of uses.

pag. 67-73: Modelos botanicos para la restauracion de rios en la cuenca del Guadalquivir

*Valle F.1, Estévez E. M.1, Guerrero Rodríguez P.2, Quesada J.2 & Salazar, C.2

1Dpto. Botánica. Facultad de Ciencias. Campus Fuentenueva. Universidad de Granada. E-18. 071. Granada (España)

2Dpto. Biología Animal, Biología Vegetal y Ecología. Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales. Edif. B3. Campus Las Lagunillas. Universidad de Jaén. E-23.071. Jaén (España)

Nowadays most of the rivers show a high disturbance level. The constant loss of their natural features makes necessary to take action to restore such valuable and sensitive environments. In this framework we present the methodological foundations to develop botanical models that identify common native species occurring along the riverbank to provide a valuable tool for river restoration.

pag. 75-82: Vegetation science and the ecoregional approach: a proposal for the ecological land classification of Italy

C. Blasi 1,2, G. Capotorti1, *R. Frondoni2, D. Guida4, B. Mollo1, D. Smiraglia3, L. Zavattero2

1Interuniversity Research Centre “Biodiversity, Plant sociology and Landscape ecology”, Rome, Italy

2Department of Plant Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

3Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Salerno, Italy

4Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Italy

This paper presents the context, methodology and preliminary results of an ecoregionalisation process applied at national scale. Ecoregion delineation was based on robust biophysical stratification and on vegetation data, particularly vegetation series. Synphytosociological information proved to be very effective as diagnostic or descriptive feature, promoting the role of synphytosociology as scientific reference point for ecoregional programmes.

pag. 83-92: Incorporating vegetation analysis into ecological characterization of landscapes: the Turkish case

K. T. Yilmaz

University of Çukurova, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture, Adana/ Turkey e-mail:

This paper mainly focuses on the integration of vegetation analysis for characterization and conservation assessment of landscapes. The role of vegetation science, in particular habitat classification, for landscape conservation and spatial planning are discussed. Phytosociological evaluation as a tool for indicating level of naturalness of landscape character areas, are considered to be essential. Within this scope CORINE Land Cover and CORINE Biotope classifications are subjected. Recent studies performed along the landscapes of the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, were reviewed. In conclusion, the function of vegetation analysis-oriented landscape characterization in landscape planning framework was highlighted.

pag. 93-99: Patterns of plant population spatial variability in relation to vegetation dynamics: vegetation series matter

*E. Farris, R. Filigheddu

Dipartimento di Scienze Botaniche, Ecologiche e Geologiche, Università di Sassari, via Piandanna 4, I-07100 Sassari, Italy (e-mail:;

The role of abiotic factors (geology and climate) and human activities in shaping the spatial variability and distribution patterns of plant populations are widely studied. Less is known on the effects of plant-plant and plant-animal interactions in determining the dispersal, establishment and performance of plant species propagules and therefore in conditioning plant population spatial variability.
Plant and animal species composition can be considered constant within a vegetation series in a discrete biogeographical and bioclimatic area: structural and functional traits of communities are therefore biotic factors that play a major role in determining the fate of populations.
Here we analyze how the chorological and functional traits of plant and animal species within vegetation series affect seed dispersal, recruits performance and population fluctuations of some case-study plant species. Comparison of the performance of plant populations among vegetation series is of great interest to understand mechanisms of plant-plant and plant-animal interaction.
Two case study are presented: temporal analysis of the population dynamics of an endemic dwarf plant (Centaurea horrida Badarò), living in coastal, thermomediterranean, juniper vegetation series, under different types of land use, and the spatial analysis of the population structure of a temperate, relic tree (Taxus baccata L.), within different types of Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean oak-dominated series, in relation to browsing.

pag. 101-110: An environmental land classification of Spain

*D. Galicia-Herbada1, J. Hervás González1, R. Martínez Torres1, J. Seoane Pinilla2, R. Hidalgo Martín3

1Gerencia de Biodiversidad. Tragsatec. Julián Camarillo 6B. 28037 Madrid. Spain,

2Departamento Interuniversitario de Ecología. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. 28049 Madrid. Spain,

3Dirección General de Medio Natural y Política Forestal, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino. Ríos Rosas 24. 28003 Madrid. Spain,

The complex pattern and relationships of Spanish natural environments are revealed by a land classification that is constructed using a statistical procedure for identifying similar environmental areas, regardless of their geographic location across the country. Rather than treating all environments as equally different, the dissimilarity between them is also quantified. This classification is based on a comprehensive set of variables that strongly influence geographic variation in biotic patterns. The resolution is 1 km2. The resulting 90 strata (68 in Iberian-Balearic Spain, 22 in the Canary Islands) can be aggregated hierarchically depending on the level of generalization that is required.
Although it was primarily constructed as a spatial reference framework for the development of the Natura 2000 network, this classification was conceived as a nationally consistent tool for monitoring, reporting and management of a range of issues, including biodiversity and land uses.

pag. 111-117: Using Biodiversity Action Plans to Manage High Conservation Value Areas in Portuguese Natura 2000 Network Areas

M. C. Silva, S. Antunes, F. Gouveia, & *N.G. de Oliveira

AmBioDiv – Valor Natural, Rua Filipe da Mata, 10, 1F, 1600-071 Lisboa, Portugal;;;;

A Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a management tool that a) evaluates and monitors wildlife and habitats with regional/local interest, with conservation status (IUCN Red Lists) and included in EU ‘Habitats’ Directives, b) evaluates species with importance in crop protection and soil conservation; c) targets bioindicator groups to assess and monitor the performance of conservationist practices and c) targets both crop areas and surroundings, including woodlands, wetlands set-aside areas, inter alia, for proper habitat management. The BAP focus strongly on the concept of High Conservation Value Areas (HCVA). HCVA are landscape level units with important natural values, i.e., habitats, fauna, flora, and frequently occur in man managed landscapes. The first BAP began in March 2006 and by now AmBioDiv manages 15 BAP, with high incidence on Natura 2000 Network areas. The BAP main goal is to establish a Biodiversity baseline which will allow the definition of management guidelines towards Biodiversity no net loss or net positive gain. The plant community assessment method was based on phytosociological data (Braun-Blanquet, 1979). The most relevant habitats were: Oak Montado forests, mixed woodlands, riparian stream banks, scrublands, meadows, aquatic communities. Some of the highlights regarding HCVA and plant communities that correspond to Biodiversity Hotspots are: Malcata HCVA – Quercus pyrenaica oaklands with a rich understory including endemisms such as Broteroi Peony (Paeonia broteroi) and Plantain Leopardbane (Doronicum plantagineum), with Strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) and Butcher’s broom (Ruscus aculeatus) also present (Arbuto unedonis-Quercetum pyrenaicae); Valongo, Alvao/Marao HCVA’s – Portuguese endemism Murbeckiella sousae was found on the understory of Common Alder (Alnus glutinosa) woodlands, (Osmundo-Alnion); Nisa and Sao Mamede HCVA – most significant orchid meadows of Serapias cordigera and Serapias lingua, (Festuco-Brometea), and scrubland (Phillyreo angustifoliae-Arbutetum unedonis); Tejo Internacional HCVA – Holm oaklands (Pyro bourgaeanae-Quercetum rotundifoliae), rocky hillside communities (Selaginello denticulatae-Anogrammetum leptphyllae) and Cape Myrtle scrublands (Pyro bourgaeanae-Flueggeetum tinctoriae); Monchique HCVA – Common Rhododendron (Osmundo-Campanuletum primulifoliae) and the Oleander (Rubio ulmifolii-Nerietum oleandri) were present only for some small areas.

pag. 119-125: Two Mediterranean landscape types and their interface as a case study for “landscape red-listing”

*G. Filibeck & A. Scoppola

Dipartimento di ecologia e sviluppo economico sostenibile (DECOS), Università degli Studi della Tuscia, Largo Università snc, 01100 Viterbo, Italia

Landscapes can be viewed as one of the levels in which biodiversity is hierarchically arranged; hence, it may prove important to develop lists of endangered landscape types. Among the landscape systems (sensu Blasi et al., 2000) of NW Lazio (C-Italy), two are particularly distinctive and biodiversity rich: the clayey-carbonate turbidite system (“Flysch della Tolfa”) and the pyroclastic-flow system (“Tufo Rosso”). The turbidite system, due to pedological features unfavorable to agriculture, and because of public property of land, shows a characteristic low density of human settlements (to an extent usually found in Italy only at much higher altitudes), and is therefore composed of ecosystems featuring many endangered and protected species. The pyroclastic system is characterized by unique land forms: flat plateaux divided by deep gorges with vertical slopes and flat bottoms. These features led to a typical and rich combination of plant communities: within a single gorge, we often found a toposequence ranging from Fagus sylvatica extrazonal stands to evergreen “macchia”. Until c. 1951, human settlements in the pyroclastic system were confined to the cliff tops, and the plateaux were almost deserted and exploited as sheep-grazing land. The two landscape types are in touch with each other through a long, geologically-driven boundary, which is very distinctive of NW Lazio. Such an interface influenced the shape and location of urban settlements, and originated a belt particularly rich in plant biodiversity. For centuries, traditional land-use practices have enhanced the differences in the assemblage of land-cover types between the two sides, hence increasing both visual distinctiveness and biodiversity across the interface. Structural patterns of both landscapes are nowadays endangered, due to land-use changes and urban sprawl: as a result, present-day development is blurring fast the difference between the two areas – the landscape interface as well should be viewed as a feature worth to be protected at landscape level. Based on the analysis of this case study, we provide some theoretical and methodological reflections on the problem of “landscape red-listing”, with some preliminary suggestions concerning the methods for landscape classification and for their “threat assessment”.

pag. 127-135: The contribution of plant sociology to the ecosystem service approach in urban and peri-urban areas: evidences from a Mediterranean metropolis case study (Rome, Italy)

*G. Capotorti1, R. Frondoni2, B. Mollo1, A. Tilia2, C. Blasi1,2

1Interuniversity Research Centre “Biodiversity, Plant sociology and Landscape ecology”, Rome, Italy

2Department of Plant Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

In this paper, we promote the use of vegetation and land cover data as biodiversity indicators of pressure, state and impact for ecosystem goods and services in urban and periurban landscapes. In the case study of the Municipality of Rome, a Mediterranean metropolis with a long history of care for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development, recent landscape researches have been addressed towards typification of plant communities, modelling of vegetation series, ecological land classification, design of land ecological network and analysis of land cover change. The results of these investigations have been employed for the identification and ecological evaluation of some locally relevant ecosystem services – such as habitat provision, conservation of species diversity, urban climate regulation, and educational values – and provide experimental evidence of the bioindication potential of plant communities and vegetation series.

pag. 137-143: Between global priorities and local urgencies: the Important Plant Areas programme in Italy

C. Blasi, *M. Marignani, M. Fipaldini & R. Copiz

Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma

Global priorities for the conservation of biodiversity assume a key role in determining the national priorities and the research agenda. The “Important Plant Areas in Italy” project, promoted by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection Directorate through a programme aimed at mapping the IPAs, represents an important contribution to the planning of strategies designed to enhance biodiversity conservation. The national working group, co-ordinated by the Inter-university research centre for “Biodiversity, Plant sociology and Landscape ecology” of the “Sapienza” University of Rome and composed of a network of 100 botanical experts was set up to obtain original information and draw up a detailed, nationwide picture of the situation in Italy.
Important Plant Areas were identified on the basis of a range of taxonomic groups (such as vascular plants, bryophytes, freshwater algae, lichens and fungi) and habitats in order to promote an integrated model of knowledge for the conservation of plant diversity. Each of the selected vascular plants and habitats was assigned a conservation value on a regional basis. An approach based on the overlapping of the species and habitat maps was used to identify the most important areas for plant diversity and to pinpoint any “hotspots” of richness and diversity.
Hence, polygons were defined within the cells of high conservation value and/or containing high vascular species and habitat richness (grid approach). A total of 320 IPAs were identified in Italy (including 8 fresh water algae community sites), covering approximately 15% of the country. Regional results highlighted the extreme heterogeneity of available data and the need for new basic research projects designed to integrate and update the information currently available on the distribution of plant species (vascular plants, bryophytes, freshwater algae, lichens), fungi and habitats in our country. Considering the global emerging issues but acting at local level, the results yielded by this project may be exploited for interventions of various kinds, ranging from the choice of protected areas to urban planning.

pag. 145-153: The role of lichens in selecting Important Plant Areas in Italy

*S. Ravera1, P. L. Nimis2, G. Brunialti3, L. Frati3, D. Isocrono4, S. Martellos2, S. Munzi5, J. Nascimbene2, G. Potenza6 & M. Tretiach2

1University of Molise, C.da Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (IS), Italy

2University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste, Italy

3TerraData environmetrics, Spin-off company of the University of Siena, Loc. Campo al ciotolo 2 bis, 58025 Monterotondo Marittimo (GR), Italy

4University of Torino, Via da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy

5University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena, Italy

6University of Basilicata. Campus di Macchia Romana, 85100 Potenza, Italy

Aim of the Important Plant Area (IPA) program – integral part of the CBD Global Strategy for Plant Conservation – is the constitution of a network of the most important natural or semi-natural sites for wild plant and fungi conservation. Giving lower plants and fungi the same importance as vascular plants, the program provides to individual countries a considerable freedom of action in the implementation of IPAs number.
Three main principles rule the site identification: Criterion A, based on species contribution; Criterion B, based on floristic richness in relation to the biogeographic zone; Criterion C, based on threatened habitats.
Italian botanists from different areas of research responded to the call comprehensively, including all the groups of plants in the definition of the IPAs. Nevertheless, experts in lichens, fungi and freshwater algae found some operational difficulties, mostly due to the incomplete knowledge of species distribution, the lack of updated databases and official red lists.
In this paper, the methodological approach used to include Italian lichens in the IPA definition is discussed. Seventy two taxa were selected as species of national interest and 21 areas critical for long-term preservation of lichen populations were proposed, including an archaeological area considered representative of cultural heritages as a lichen complex habitat.

pag. 155-161: The Important Plant Areas program from a mycological point of view: the regional experience in an European context

*C. Perini, P. Leonardi, L. Pecoraro & E. Salerni

DSA “G. Sarfatti”, via P.A.Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, +390577232871,

In activities for conservation of biodiversity and habitats fungi were usually disregarded in spite of their great ecological role. Thanks to the IPA program, a target of the European and Global strategies for Plant Conservation, also the so called lower plants are included and this improve the position of fungi in the complex of nature conservation programs.
The ECCF (European Council for the Conservation of Fungi), founded in 1985, aims to promote the attention for the conservation of Fungi to all governmental bodies and non-governmental organisations and stimulate the publication of national and regional Lists of threatened fungi. The publication of Red Lists is one of the basic activities to support the conservation strategies and allows the application of Criterion A, among the IPA selection criteria. In spite of the fundamental work of ECCF, only a third of European countries has a Red List of fungi.
In Tuscany first attempts to apply the IPA criteria to the Regnum Fungi dates back to the first years of the new millennium; the publication of a Tuscan Red List and participation at the national IPA project have been fundamental.
In this work the IPA criteria, are analyzed from a mycological point of view and utilized to select the “Montagnola Senese” as important plant/fungus area.

pag. 163-169: Population biology and conservation of Mediterranean endemics: studies on the rare Dianthus guliae Janka

D. Gargano

Dipartimento di Ecologia dell’Università della Calabria. Current address: Museo di Storia Naturale della Calabria ed Orto Botanico dell’Università della Calabria, Loc. Polifunzionale, I-87030 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), e-mail:

The paper provides insights into habitat features, breeding system and sensitivity to inbreeding depression of Dianthus guliae Janka, an endangered carnation endemic to Italian Peninsula. Since its discovery, D. guliae disappeared in various sites of historical occurrence. Consequently, the species currently occurs in a few stands scattered on the Cilento mountains, and in a severely depleted population found in north-eastern Calabria. In order to improve the conservation status of D. guliae, the species was subject to an array of empirical investigations on the possible reasons of its proneness to extinction. Much work was focused on biological traits potentially related to a low persistence ability under adverse demographic contexts. Subsequently to preliminary tests, improved work on reproductive traits confirmed that D. guliae is unable for effective seed production under scarce pollen delivery. Moreover, fitness assessments in crossed and selfed progenies highlighted the plant’s sensitivity to inbreeding depression. The cultivation of selfed and crossed offspring under different regimes (including field conditions) showed that the extent of inbreeding depression increases with environmental harshness. Information on community structure and composition suggest that in Calabria the species is prone to forest recovery and clumping. In absence of conservation measures focused on both habitat and population, it is likely that D. guliae will undergo a further extinction in the southernmost stand.