Plant Sociology 56 (2) 2019

pag. 1-2: Plant Sociology, Vol. 56(2), December 2019 – Cover and Editorial Board

pag. 3-34: The Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (Mill.) Lehr. forests in the Mediterranean area

L. Gianguzzi1, G. Bazan2

1Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

2Department of Biological, Chemical, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/01

online: 2019, Nov 25

This paper examines the forest communities dominated by Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (Mill.) Lehr. that have been described up until now in the Mediterranean Region (including other isolated extrazonal areas in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula and in Northern Turkey) as more or less evolved aspects of woods, microwoods and high maquis that principally tend to make up climacic and edapho-climacic “series heads”. These formations maintain a significant large-scale distributive potential within the infra- and thermomediterranean bioclimate belts (with a few penetrations into the mesomediterranean) with a dry-subhumid (and sometimes humid) ombrotype; however, they are currently quite rare and fragmented in the wake of large-scale deforestation and the impoverishment of old-growth communities dominated by a species known to live for millennia. The study was conducted through the analysis of phytosociological data taken from the scientific literature and other unpublished data regarding North-Africa (Morocco, Algeria), the Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands as well as other islands from the Tyrrhenian area (Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and its minor islands), the Italian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, the Aegean region, Turkey and the southern Anatolian coast. A comparison between the different communities has shown a high floristic and physiognomic-structural homogeneity that justifies their categorization in the Quercetea ilicis class. The biogeographic and ecologic vicariance shown by the same formations within the large Mediterranean distribution range makes it possible to subdivide them into the following orders and alliances: 1) Pistacio-Rhamnetalia alaterni [A) all. Tetraclini articulatae-Pistacion atlanticae (suball. Pistacienion atlanticae); B) all. Asparago albi-Rhamnion oleoidis; C) all. Oleo sylvestris-Ceratonion siliquae]; 2) Quercetalia calliprini [D) all. Ceratonio-Pistacion lentisci]; 3) Quercetalia ilicis [E) all. Querco rotundifoliae-Oleion sylvestris; F) all. Fraxino orni-Quercion ilicis; G) all. Erico arboreae-Quercion ilicis; H) all. Arbuto unedonis-Laurion nobilis (suball. Arbuto-Laurenion nobilis)]. Regarding the syntaxonomical aspect: (i) two new associations are described [Hippocrepido emeroidis-Oleetum sylvestris and Junipero foetidissimae-Oleetum sylvestris]; (ii) two new associations [Phillyreo latifoliae-Oleetum sylvestris Barbero, Quézel & Rivas-Martínez ex Gianguzzi & Bazan ass. nova and Calicotomo intermediae-Oleetum sylvestris Quézel, Barbero, Benabid, Loisel & Rivas-Martínez 1988 ex Gianguzzi & Bazan ass. nova] and a new subassociation [Aro neglecti-Oleetum sylvestris Rivas-Martínez & Cantò 2002 corr. Rivas-Martínez & Cantò fraxinetosum angustifoliae Pérez Latorre, Galán de Mera, Deil & Cabezudo ex Gianguzzi & Bazan subass. nova] are leptotypified; (iii) a nomen novum of the association is redefined [Rhamno laderoi-Oleastretum sylvestris (Cantò, Ladero, Perez-Chiscano & Rivas-Martínez 2011) Gianguzzi & Bazan nom. nov.].

pag. 35-42: Animal-mediated interactions for pollination in saltmarsh communities

E. Fantinato, G. Buffa

Department of Environmental Science, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Via Torino 155, I-30172 Venice, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/02

online: 2019, Dec 2

Among the wide variety of biotic interactions, animal-mediated pollination plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the integrity of plant communities. Thus, there is increasing concern about the possible effects that the growing loss of pollinators (i.e., pollinator crisis phenomenon) might have on plant communities. Recent studies revealed that pollination interactions often occur at the landscape scale, with plant species of different communities interacting through pollinator sharing. Saltmarshes provide a suitable example of plant communities spatially co-occurring at the landscape scale, with the micro-topography determining a precise zonation of ecologically distinct halophytic communities. However, little is still known about pollination interactions in saltmarshes. The aim of the present study was to assess which halophytic community contribute best to pollinator species richness in saltmarshes and whether plant species of different halophytic communities interact through pollinator sharing. To this aim we placed 20 permanent plots per plant community and monitored pollination interactions between plants and pollinators once a month during the overall flowering season. Our results revealed that animal-mediated pollination occurred in only two halophytic communities, with three species depending on animals for their pollination. When comparing halophytic communities in terms of richness of pollinator species, the vegetation of sandbanks, mudflats and sandflats emerged as the richest one. Animal-pollinated species of saltmarshes only partially shared pollinator species, revealing an overall low exchange of pollinators between different halophytic communities. In conclusion, the high complementarity in the spectrum of pollinators showed by animal-pollinated species of different halophytic communities makes all halophytic communities hosting animal-pollinated species important for the conservation of pollinators.

pag. 43-52: Bryosociological remarks on garrigue environments in Apulia Region (Southern Italy)

M. Puglisi1, S. Sciandrello1, C.M. Musarella2, G. Spampinato2, M. Privitera1, V. Tomaselli3

1Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Italy.

2Department of Agraria, “Mediterranea” University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.

3C.N.R. Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Bari, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/03

online: 2019, Dec 2

A phytosociological study on the bryophyte communities of the xeric environments of Apulia Region was carried out. According the cluster analysis, the surveyed communities recognized in the context of the garrigue habitats are: Pleurochaeto squarrosae-Cheilotheletum chloropi, considered typical of the garrigues, Rhynchostegietum megapolitani and Pleurochaeto squarrosae-Tortuletum ruralis of the alliance Homathecio aurei-Pleurochaetion squarrosaeTortello flavovirentis-Trichostometum crispuli and Tortelletum papillosissimae of the psammophytic alliance Tortellion flavovirentisWeissietum controversae and Barbuletum convolutae of the alliance Grimaldion fragrantis.

pag. 53-68: Contribution to the knowledge of Mediterranean wetland biodiversity: Plant communities of the Aquila Lake (Calabria, Southern Italy)

G. Spampinato1, S. Sciandrello2, G. Giusso del Galdo2, M. Puglisi2, V. Tomaselli3, S. Cannavò1, C.M. Musarella1

1Department of Agraria, “Mediterranea” University of Reggio Calabria, Loc. Feo di Vito snc, I-89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy.

2Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Italy.

3National Research Council – Institute of Biosciences and BioResources (CNR-IBBR), via G. Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/04

online: 2019, Dec 2

As part of researches undertaken on the aquatic and marsh vegetation of southern Italy, a study on the Aquila Lake, a small lake basin in southern Calabria near Rosarno (RC), is here presented. Overall, 86 phytosociological relevés were carried out. The phytosociological study allowed the identification of several aquatic and marsh phytocoenoses, many of which not yet known for the region. They are referable to the following 8 classes: Lemnetea minoris R. Tx. ex O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955, Potametea pectinati R.Tx. & Preising 1942, Phragmito australis-Magnocaricetea elatae Klika in Klika & Novák 1941, Agrostietea stoloniferae Oberdorfer 1983, Galio aparines-Urticetea dioicae Passarge ex Kopecký 1969, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea Tüxen 1937, Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae Rivas-Martínez & Cantó ex Rivas-Martínez et al. 2001, Querco roboris-Fagetea sylvaticae Br.-Bl. & Vlieger in Vlieger 1937. A peculiar marsh vegetation is the Cladietum marisci Allorge 1922 ex Zobrist 1935 (habitat of Community interest, according to the EEC directive 43/92 – 7210 *Calcareous ferns with Cladium mariscus and species of the Caricion davallianae”). In the Aquila Lake, some rare aquatic plant communities highlight the importance of this biotope for biodiversity conservation. In particular, we found the pleustophytic associations Lemno-Spirodeletum polyrhizae Koch 1954, Lemno minoris-Hydrocharitetum morsus-ranae Passarge 1978 and the aquatic rooted vegetation of Nymphaeetum albae Vollm. 1947. Despite the heavy pressures on this area, the biotope harbours a well-differentiated and structured aquatic and marsh vegetation that allows the presence of a rich bird life, both sedentary and migratory. The area, privately owned, is not protected; hunting and fishing are practiced and water is pumped for irrigation with negative consequences on the integrity of the entire aquatic ecosystem. Because of its naturalistic peculiarities and its remarkable biodiversity, this biotope certainly deserves more attention and should be proposed as a protected area.

pag. 69-80: Oak decline in the Mediterranean basin: a study case from the southern Apennines (Italy)

A.L. Conte1, R. Di Pietro2, D. Iamonico2, P. Di Marzio1, G. Cillis3, D. Lucia3, P. Fortini1

1Department Bioscience and Territory, University of Molise, I-86090 Pesche (IS), Italy.

2Department PDTA, University of Rome Sapienza, I-00196 Rome, Italy.

3School of Agricultural, Forestry and Environmental Sciences. University of Basilicata, I-85100 Potenza, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/05

online: 2019, Dec 19

It is known that the decline of oaks forest can be triggered by an increase of climatic anomalies such as heat waves, droughts, and extreme cold. The present study aims to deepen the relationships between climate anomalies and oak decline basing on in-field observations made in the Lucanian Apennine (southern Italy) during summer 2017. Remote sensing was used to identify those areas affected by vegetation decline. A comparison of the climatic conditions recorded in 2015 and 2017 was carried out, these years being the hottest and the driest, respectively, since 1800. Satellite images and remote sensing data [Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI)], and ground-based collected data [(Decline Severity (DES), Deficit/Surplus (D/S), Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)] were processed using GIS techniques to evaluate spatial distribution and time-scale evolution of the damage by oak decline. The results show that despite the heat peaks reached in 2015, it was not possible to highlight any clear sign of oak decline based on satellite images for that year. On the contrary, these signs were found to be evident by observing the satellite images of 2017 and confirmed by the Decline Severity assessment made in the field and further supported by NDWI and DNDWI indexes. Regarding possible factors that may have triggered the 2017’ oak decline in the study area, it is not possible to provide a definite answer, at present. In this work it was hypothesized that an important role could have been played by the drastic reduction of rainfalls during the first semester of the year

pag. 81-98: Updated and new insights on the coastal halophilous vegetation of southeastern Sicily (Italy)

S. Sciandrello1, C.M. Musarella2, M. Puglisi1, G. Spampinato2, V. Tomaselli3,4, P. Minissale1

1Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania , via A. Longo 19, I-95125 Catania, Italy.

2Department of AGRARIA, “Mediterranea” University of Reggio Calabria, Loc. Feo di Vito snc, I-89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy.

3Institute of Biosciences and BioResources (IBBR), National Research Council (CNR), Via Amendola 165/A, I-70126 Bari, Italy.

4Department of Biology, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/06

online: 2019, Dec 19

An overview of the salt marsh vegetation of southeastern Sicily is here presented. On the basis of a total of 241 relevés, 8 classes and 32 plant communities have been identified, following the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological method. The salt marsh vegetation of southeastern Sicily is represented by aquatic communities of Ruppietea and Potamogetonetea, by helophytic communities of Phragmito-Magnocaricetea, by hygrophylous communities of Juncetea maritimi, by halophylous communities of Salicornietea fruticosae, by annual halo-nitrophylous communities of Saginetea maritimae, and finally by halophylous annual communities of Thero-Suaedetea splendentis. The plant communities belonging to Salicornietea fruticosae and Juncetea maritimi classes, were analysed through a numerical analysis (hierarchical clustering). The study also describes two new associations belonging to the Tamaricion africanae (Limbardo crithmoidis-Tamaricetum africanae) and Frankenion pulverulentae (Brizo minoris-Isolepidetum cernui) alliances.

pag. 99-112: Coriaria myrtifolia-dominated vegetation: syntaxonomic considerations on a newly found community type in Tuscany (Italy)

G. Bonari1, T. Fiaschi2, K. Chytrý1, M. Biagioli3, C. Angiolini2

1Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.

2Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53018, Siena, Italy.

3Meteo Siena 24, Via Piave 2, I-53100 Siena, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/07

online: 2019, Dec 21

During botanical researches, we found an isolated population of Coriaria myrtifolia for the first time in Tuscany (Italy). This study aims to gain insights into the distribution of this species and its associated vegetation. We studied the scrub vegetation dominated by C. myrtifolia at the currently known southernmost limit of its distribution in Italy through the phytosociological method. We present and discuss the attribution of the Tuscan relevés to the association Rubo ulmifolii-Coriarietum myrtifoliae O. de Bolòs 1954 (Pruno spinosae-Rubion ulmifolii O. de Bolòs 1954), firstly reported for peninsular Italy. Our data allowed us to describe a new subassociation viburnetosum tini differentiated by the Mediterranean shrub Viburnum tinus subsp. tinus and by the meso-xerophilous herbs Lathyrus latifolius and Viola alba subsp. dehnhardtii. This research also suggests that, although vast areas of Tuscany lie in the Temperate submediterranean macrobioclimate, including our study area, the presence of Mediterranean elements in the shrub vegetation can be conspicuous when local factors, such as a water body, mitigate the microclimate.

pag. 113-128: A survey of landscape planning in Italy, where application is utopia. An updated proposal for a shared landscape analysis model

R. Di Pietro1, F. Perrone1, N. Del Re1, M. Franzosi1, M.C. Natalia2, P. Pellegrino1, E. Penna1, E. Peroni3, M. Tolli4, E. Trusiani5, D. Iamonico1

1Department PDTA, University of Rome Sapienza, 00196 Rome, Italy.

2ISPRA – Institute for Environmental Protection and Research,00148 Rome, Italy.

3Territorial Planning and Representation, Regional Park Agency, 00166 Rome, Italy.

4Department of Architecture and Project, Sapienza University of Rome, 00196 Rome, Italy.

5School of Architecture and Design, University of Camerino, 63100 Ascoli Piceno, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/08

online: 2019, Dec 23

Landscape is known to be an across-the-board issue. Italy is one of the 14 signatories of European Landscape Convention and has enacted a specific law (Urbani Code) devoted to regulating landscape planning and management. Despite this, landscape planning in Italy is far from being a clearly defined field based on standardized and shared procedures. Only a small fraction of the Landscape Plans has so far been completed and they tend to be completely unrelated to each other. The existence of too many authorities having a say in the drawing up and supervision of the Plans leads to the accumulation of absurdly long delays in obtaining approval for the Plans. The vagueness of the Italian laws concerning landscape prevents the development of National models and strategies for landscape management and safeguard. A detailed analysis of the Italian situation of landscape planning and proposals aimed at improving the existing system are presented.

pag. 129-134: New national and regional Annex I Habitat records: from #9 to #12

D. Gigante1 , S. Bagella2,3 , F. Bonini1, M.C. Caria2, A. Gabellini4, M. Gennai5, G. Rivieccio2, D. Viciani5

1Department of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, University of Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, I-06121 Perugia, Italy.

2Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Via Piandanna 4, I-07100 Sassari, Italy.

3Desertification Research Centre, University of Sassari, Via de Nicola, I-07100 Sassari, Italy.

4Via P. Grocco 20, I-50144 Firenze, Italy.

5Department of Biology, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze, Italy.

doi: 10.7338/pls2019562/09

online: 2019, Dec 23

In this contribution, new data concerning the distribution of the Annex I Habitats 5110, 6110*, 6510, 7210* are reported. In particular, five new cells in the EEA 10 km x 10 km reference grid and two new occurrences in Natura 2000 Sites are presented. No Habitat is proposed for elimination from any cell. The novelty of these data refers to the results of the 4th Report ex-Art. 17 on Annex I Habitat Monitoring in Europe. The new data refer to Italy.